Such Maps are Pictures of Wrinkles

James Nasmyth and James Carpenter, The Moon: Considered as a Planet, a World, and a Satellite, John Murray, London, 1874, pp. 32–34—

The consequence of too large a solid shell having to accommodate itself to a shrunken body underneath, is that the skin, so to term the outer stratum of solid matter, becomes shrivelled up into alternate ridges and depressions, or wrinkles. In its attempt to crush down and follow the contracting substratum it would have to displace the superabundant or superfluous material of its former larger surface by thrusting it (by the action of tangential force) into undulating ridges […] A long-kept shrivelled apple affords an apt illustration of this wrinkle theory; another example may be observed in the human face and hand, when age has caused the flesh to shrink and so leave the comparatively unshrinking skin relatively too large as a covering for it […] Whenever an outer covering has to accommodate and apply itself to an interior body that has become too small for it, wrinkles are inevitably produced. The same action that shrivels the human skin into creases and wrinkles, has also shrivelled certain regions of the igneous crust of the earth. A map of a mountainous part of our globe affords abundant evidence of such a cause having been in action; such maps are pictures of wrinkles.

imageNasmyth and Carpenter. imageNasmyth and Carpenter. imageAimé Civiale, Carte des Alpes. Pour servir aux voyages photographiques, d'après ses panoramas photographiques et les Cartes des États-Majors Françoise, Suisse, Italien et Autrichien, J. Rothschild, Paris, 1880; via Jan von Brevern, “Counting on the Unexpected: Aimé Civiale's Mountain Photography”, in Science in Context, Vol. 22, No. 3, September 2009, pp 409–437.